Forschungszentrum Borstel
Forschungszentrum Borstel

Programmbereich Infektionen




Hölscher, C, Heitmann, L, Owusu-Dabo, E, Horstmann, RD, Meyer, CG, Ehlers, S & Thye, T 2016, 'A Mutation in IL4RA Is Associated with the Degree of Pathology in Human TB Patients' Mediators of inflammation, Bd 2016, 4245028., 10.1155/2016/4245028


Böhme J, Roßnagel C, Jacobs T, Behrends J, Hölscher C, Erdmann H. EBI3 suppresses Th1, Th17 and Th2 immune responses after Trypanosoma cruzi infection and inhibits parasite replication by interfering with alternative macrophage activation. Immunology. 2015 Dec 23. doi: 10.1111/imm.12565. [Epub ahead of print]

Hernández PP, Mahlakõiv T, Yang I, Schwierzeck V, Nguyen N, Guendel F et al. Interferon-λ and interleukin 22 act synergistically for the induction of interferon-stimulated genes and control of rotavirus infection. NATURE IMMUNOLOGY . 2015 Jul;16(7):698-707.

Speer A, Sun J, Danilchanka O, Meikle V, Rowland JL, Walter K et al. Surface hydrolysis of sphingomyelin by the outer membrane protein Rv0888 supports replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages.  Mol Microbiol. 2015 Sep;97(5):881-97. doi:
10.1111/mmi.13073. Epub 2015 Jul 4.

Lunding LP, Webering S, Vock C, Behrends J, Wagner C, Hölscher C et al. Poly(inosinic-cytidylic) Acid-Triggered Exacerbation of Experimental Asthma Depends on IL-17A Produced by NK Cells. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY. 2015 Mai 13;194(12):5615-25.


Heitmann L, Abad Dar M, Schreiber T, Erdmann H, Behrends J, Mckenzie ANJ et al. The IL-13/IL-4Rα axis is involved in tuberculosis-associated pathology. JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY . 2014 Nov 1;234(3):338-50.

Krusch M, Köhl J, Niemann S, Homolka S, Thye T, Horstmann RD et al. The role of complement components in the immune response against M. tuberculosis. in: Molecular Immunology. 2014, S. 266.

Maiwald F, Benítez D, Charquero D, Dar MA, Erdmann H, Preu L et al. 9- and 11-substituted 4-azapaullones are potent and selective inhibitors of African trypanosoma.  EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY . 2014 Aug 18;83:274-83.

Berod L, Stüve P, Varela F, Behrends J, Swallow M, Kruse F et al. Rapid rebound of the Treg compartment in DEREG mice limits the impact of Treg depletion on mycobacterial burden, but prevents the development of autoimmunity *CH and TS contributed equally. PLOS ONE. 2014 Jul 22;9(7):e10284.

Eickmeier O, Kim SY, Herrmann E, Döring C, Duecker R, Voss S et al. Altered mucosal immune response after acute lung injury in a murine model of Ataxia Telangiectasia. BMC PULMONARY MEDICINE. 2014 Jan 1;14(1):93.


Heitmann, L, Schoenen, H, Ehlers, S, Lang, R & Hölscher, C. 2013, 'Mincle is not essential for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection' IMMUNOBIOLOGY, Bd 218, Nr. 4, S. 506-516.

Kierdorf K, Erny D, Goldmann T, Sander V, Schulz C, Perdiguero EG, Wieghofer P, Heinrich A, Riemke P, Hölscher C, Müller DN, Luckow B, Brocker T, Debowski K, Fritz G, Opdenakker G, Diefenbach A, Biber K, Heikenwalder M, Geissmann F, Rosenbauer F & Prinz M. 2013, ‘Microglia emerge from erythromyeloid precursors via PU.1 and IRF-8 dependent pathways’ NATURE NEUROSICENCE 16:273-280.

Garbers, C, Spudy, B, Aparicio-Siegmund, S, Waetzig, GH, Sommer, J, Hölscher, C, Rose-John, S, Grötzinger, J, Lorenzen, I & Scheller, J 2013, 'An interleukin-6 receptor-dependent molecular switch mediates signal transduction of the IL-27 cytokine subunit p28 (IL-30) via a gp130 protein receptor homodimer' The Journal of biological chemistry, vol 288, no. 6, pp. 4346-54.

Behrends J, Renauld JC, Ehlers S, Hölscher C. IL-22 is mainly produced by IFNγ-secreting cells but is dispensable for host protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57379.

Erdmann H, Roßnagel C, Böhme J, Iwakura Y, Jacobs T, Schaible UE, Hölscher C. IL-17A promotes macrophage effector mechanisms against Trypanosoma cruzi by trapping parasites in the endolysosomal compartment. Immunobiology 2013 Jun;218(6):910-23.


Gelderblom M, Weymar A, Bernreuther C, Velden J, Arunachalam P, Steinbach K, Orthey E, Arumugam TV, Leypoldt F, Simova O, Thom V, Friese MA, Prinz I, Hölscher C, Glatzel M, Korn T, Gerloff C, Tolosa E, Magnus T. Neutralization of the IL-17 axis diminishes neutrophil invasion and protects from ischemic stroke. BLOOD 2012 Nov;120(18):3793–3802.

Mueller A-K, Behrends J, Hagens K, Mahlo J, Schaible UE, Schneider BE. Natural Transmission of Plasmodium berghei Exacerbates Chronic Tuberculosis in an Experimental Co-Infection Model. PLOS ONE 2012 Oct;7(10):e48110. Open Access

Sodenkamp J, Waetzig GH, Scheller J, Seegert D, Grötzinger J, Rose-John S, Ehlers S, Hölscher C. Therapeutic targeting of interleukin-6 trans-signaling does not affect the outcome of experimental tuberculosis. IMMUNOBIOLOGY 2012 Oct;217(10):996–1004.

Erdmann H, Roßnagel C, Böhme J, Iwakura Y, Jacobs T, Schaible UE, Hölscher C. IL-17A promotes macrophage effector mechanisms against Trypanosoma cruzi by trapping parasites in the endolysosomal compartment. IMMUNOBIOLOGY 2012 Oct (in press).

Heitmann L, Rani R, Dawson L, Perkins C, Yang Y, Downey J, Hölscher C, Herbert DR. TGF-β-Responsive Myeloid Cells Suppress Type 2 Immunity and Emphysematous Pathology after Hookworm Infection. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY 2012 Sep;181(3):897–906.

Tchaptchet S, Gumenscheimer M, Kalis C, Freudenberg N, Hölscher C, Kirschning CJ, Lamers M, Galanos C, Freudenberg MA. TLR9-Dependent and Independent Pathways Drive Activation of the Immune System by Propionibacterium Acnes. PLoS ONE 2012 Jun;7(6):e39155. Open Access

Heitmann L, Schoenen H, Ehlers S, Lang R, Hölscher C. Mincle is not essential for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. IMMUNOBIOLOGY 2012 Jun (in press).

Maertzdorf J, Weiner J 3rd, Mollenkopf H-J, TBornotTB Network, Bauer T, Prasse A, Müller-Quernheim J, Kaufmann SHE. Common patterns and disease-related signatures in tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 2012 May;109(20):7853-8.

Carrasco-Marin E, Rodriguez-Del Rio E, Frande-Cabanes E, Tobes R, Pareja E, Lecea-Cuello MJ, Ruiz-Saez M, Madrazo-Toca F, Hölscher C, Alvarez-Dominguez C. Phagosomes induced by cytokines function as anti-listeria vaccines: a novel role for functional compartmentalization of STAT-1 and cathepsin-D. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 2012 Feb;287(18):14310–14324.



Sodenkamp J, Behrends J, Förster I, Müller W, Ehlers S, Hölscher C. gp130 on macrophages/granulocytes modulates inflammation during experimental tuberculosis. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY 2011 Jun;90(6-7):505-14, Epub 2010 Dec 8.

Hessmann M, Rausch A, Rückerl D, Adams PS, Simon M, Gilfillan S, Colonna M, Ehlers S, Hölscher C. DAP10 contributes to CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxic effector mechanisms during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. IMMUNOBIOLOGY 2011 May;216(5):639-647.



Lindner U, Kramer J, Behrends J, Driller B, Wendler N, Boehrnsen F, Rohwedel J, Schlenke P. Improved proliferation and differentiation capacity of human mesenchymal stromal cells cultured with basement-membrane extracellular matrix proteins. CYTOTHERAPY 2010 Dec;12(8):992-1005.

Vonarbourg C, Mortha A, Bui VL, Hernandez PP, Kiss EA, Hoyler T, Flach M, Bengsch B, Thimme R, Hölscher C, Hönig M, Pannicke U, Schwarz K, Ware CF, Finke D, Diefenbach A. Regulated expression of nuclear receptor RORγt confers distinct functional fates to NK cell receptor-expressing RORγt(+) innate lymphocytes. IMMUNITY 2010 Nov;33(5):736-751.

Walter K, Hölscher C, Tschopp J, Ehlers S. NALP3 is not necessary for early protection against experimental tuberculosis. IMMUNOBIOLOGY 2010 Oct;215(9-10):804-11.

Jacobs T, Erdmann H, Fleischer B. Molecular interaction of Siglecs (sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins) with sialylated ligands on Trypanosoma cruzi. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY 2010 Jan;89(1):113-116.

Bookchapters 2010

Ehlers S, Reiling N, Hölscher C, Aly S. Measuring Immune Responses In Vivo.  In: Immunology of Infection. (Methods in Microbiology ; 37) Academic Press; 2010 p. 227-269.



Munoz M, Heimesaat M, Danker K, Struck D, Lohmann U, Plickert R, Bereswill S, Fischer A, Dunay I, Wolk K, Loddenkemper C, Krell H, Libert C, Lund L, Frey O, Holscher C, Iwakura Y, Ghilardi N, Ouyang W, Kamradt T, Sabat R, Liesenfeld O. Interleukin (IL)-23 mediates Toxoplasma gondii-induced immunopathology in the gut via matrixmetalloproteinase-2 and IL-22 but independent of IL-17. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2009 Dec;206(13):3047-3059.

Brucklacher-Waldert V, Steinbach K, Lioznov M, Kolster M, Holscher C, Tolosa E. Phenotypical Characterization of Human Th17 Cells Unambiguously Identified by Surface IL-17A Expression. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2009 Nov;183(9):5494-5501.

Erdmann H, Steeg C, Koch-Nolte F, Fleischer B, Jacobs T. Sialylated ligands on pathogenic Trypanosoma cruzi interact with Siglec-E (sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-E). CELLULAR MICROBIOLOGY 2009 Nov;11(11):1600-1611.

Karsten C, Behrends J, Wagner A, Fuchs F, Figge J, Schmudde I, Hellberg L, Kruse A. DC within the pregnant mouse uterus influence growth and functional properties of uterine NK cells. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2009 Aug;39(8):2203-2214.

Ehlers S, Schreiber T, Dunzendorfer A, Lowe J, Holscher C. Fucosyltransferase IV and VII-directed selectin ligand function determines long-term survival in experimental tuberculosis. IMMUNOBIOLOGY 2009 Aug;214(8):674-682.

Schreiber T, Ehlers S, Heitmann L, Rausch A, Mages J, Murray P, Lang R, Holscher C. Autocrine IL-10 Induces Hallmarks of Alternative Activation in Macrophages and Suppresses Antituberculosis Effector Mechanisms without Compromising T Cell Immunity. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2009 Jul;183(2):1301-1312.

Paust H, Turner J, Steinmetz O, Peters A, Heymann F, Holscher C, Wolf G, Kurts C, Mittrucker H, Stahl R, Panzer U. The IL-23/Th17 Axis Contributes to Renal Injury in Experimental Glomerulonephritis. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY 2009 May;20(5):969-979.

Mack U, Migliori G, Sester M, Rieder H, Ehlers S, Goletti D, Bossink A, Magdorf K, Holscher C, Kampmann B, Arend S, Detjen A, Bothamley G, Zellweger J, Milburn H, Diel R, Ravn P, Cobelens F, Cardona P, Kan B, Solovic I, Duarte R, Cirillo D, Lange C. LTBI: latent tuberculosis infection or lasting immune responses to M. tuberculosis? A TBNET consensus statement. EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL 2009 May;33(5):956-973.

Werninghaus K, Babiak A, Gross O, Holscher C, Dietrich H, Agger E, Mages J, Mocsai A, Schoenen H, Finger K, Nimmerjahn F, Brown G, Kirschning C, Heit A, Andersen P, Wagner H, Ruland J, Lang R. Adjuvanticity of a synthetic cord factor analogue for subunit Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccination requires FcR gamma-Syk-Card9-dependent innate immune activation. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE 2009 Jan;206(1):89-97.

Brombacher F, Arendse B, Peterson R, Hölscher A, Hölscher C. Analyzing classical and alternative macrophage activation in macrophage/neutrophil-specific IL-4 receptor-alpha-deficient mice. METHODS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 2009;531:225-252.



Schulz S, Kohler G, Schutze N, Knauer J, Straubinger R, Chackerian A, Witte E, Wolk K, Sabat R, Iwakura Y, Holscher C, Muller U, Kastelein R, Alber G. Protective Immunity to Systemic Infection with Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in the Absence of IL-12 Is Associated with IL-23-Dependent IL-22, but Not IL-17. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2008 Dec;181(11):7891-7901.

Cramer J, Lepenies B, Kamena F, Holscher C, Freudenberg M, Burchard G, Wagner H, Kirschning C, Liu X, Seeberger P, Jacobs T. MyD88/IL-18-dependent pathways rather than TLRs control early parasitaemia in non-lethal Plasmodium yoelii infection. MICROBES AND INFECTION 2008 Oct;10(12-13):1259-1265.

Schulz S, Kohler G, Holscher C, Iwakura Y, Alber G. IL-17A is produced by T(h)17, gamma delta T cells and other CD4(-) lymphocytes during infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and has a mild effect in bacterial clearance. INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOLOGY 2008 Sep;20(9):1129-1138.

Holscher C, Reiling N, Schaible U, Holscher A, Bathmann C, Korbel D, Lenz I, Sonntag T, Kroger S, Akira S, Mossmann H, Kirschning C, Wagner H, Freudenberg M, Ehlers S. Containment of aerogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice does not require MyD88 adaptor function for TLR2, -4 and -9. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2008 Mar;38(3):680-694.

Reiling N, Ehlers S, Holscher C. MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: Sensor, instructive and effector immunity to tuberculosis. IMMUNOLOGY LETTERS 2008 Feb;116(1):15-23.


Nigg A, Zahn S, Ruckerl D, Holscher C, Yoshimoto T, Ehrchen J, Wolbing F, Udey M, von Stebut E. Dendritic cell-derived IL-12p40 homodimer contributes to susceptibility in cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2007 Jun;178(11):7251-7258.

Radwanska M, Cutler A, Hoving J, Magez S, Holscher C, Bohms A, Arendse B, Kirsch R, Hunig T, Alexander J, Kaye P, Brombacher F. Deletion of IL-4R alpha on CD4 T cells renders BALB/c mice resistant to Leishmania major infection. PLOS PATHOGENS 2007 May;3(5):619-629. Open Access

van Zandbergen G, Bollinger A, Wenzel A, Kamhawi S, Voll R, Klinger M, Muller A, Holscher C, Herrmann M, Sacks D, Solbach W, Laskay T. Leishmania disease development depends on the presence of apoptotic promastigotes in the virulent inoculum. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES 2006 Sep;103(37):13837-13842.

2006 (Selection)

Holscher C. Aptamers against interleukin-12-related cytokines as novel therapeutics in autoimmune diseases. EXPERT OPINION ON THERAPEUTIC PATENTS 2006 Jul;16(7):1025-1030.

Rausch A, Hessmann M, Holscher A, Schreiber T, Bulfone-Paus S, Ehlers S, Holscher C. Interleukin-15 mediates protection against experimental tuberculosis: A role for NKG2D-dependent effector mechanisms of CD8(+) T cells. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2006 May;36(5):1156-1167.

Schreiber T, Ehlers S, Aly S, Holscher A, Hartmann S, Lipp M, Lowe J, Holscher C. Selectin ligand-independent priming and maintenance of T cell immunity during airborne tuberculosis. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2006 Jan;176(2):1131-1140.

Holscher C, Arendse B, Schwegmann A, Myburgh E, Brombacher F. Impairment of alternative macrophage activation delays cutaneous leishmaniasis in nonhealing BALB/c mice. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2006 Jan;176(2):1115-1121.

Ruckerl D, Hessmann M, Yoshimoto T, Ehlers S, Holscher C. Alternatively activated macrophages express the IL-27 receptor alpha chain WSX-1. IMMUNOBIOLOGY 2006;211(6-8):427-436.

2005 (Selection)

Hölscher C. Targeting IL-23 in autoimmunity. CURRENT OPINION IN INVESTIGATIONAL DDRUGS 2005 May;6(5):489-495.

Holscher C, Holscher A, Ruckerl D, Yoshimoto T, Yoshida H, Mak T, Saris C, Ehlers S. The IL-27 receptor chain WSX-1 differentially regulates antibacterial immunity and survival during experimental tuberculosis. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2005 Mar;174(6):3534-3544.

Scheller J, Schuster B, Holscher C, Yoshimoto T, Rose-John S. No inhibition of IL-27 signaling by soluble gp130. BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 2005 Jan;326(4):724-728.

Ehlers S, Lehmann J, Mossmann H, Alber G, Holscher C. Interleukin-12p40 mediates transient protection against Mycobacterium avium infection in the absence of interleukin-12. IMMUNOBIOLOGY 2005;210(2-4):217-227.

2002-2004 (Selection)

Herbert D, Holscher C, Mohrs M, Arendse B, Schwegmann A, Radwanska M, Leeto M, Kirsch R, Hall P, Mossmann H, Claussen B, Forster I, Brombacher F. Alternative macrophage activation is essential for survival during schistosomiasis and downmodulates T helper 1 responses and immunopathology. IMMUNITY 2004 May;20(5):623-635.

Muller U, Sobek V, Balkow S, Holscher C, Mullbacher A, Museteanu C, Mossmann H, Simon M. Concerted action of perforin and granzymes is critical for the elimination of Trypanosoma cruzi from mouse tissues, but prevention of early host death is in addition dependent on the FasL/Fas pathway. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2003 Jan;33(1):70-78.

Reiling N, Holscher C, Fehrenbach A, Kroger S, Kirschning C, Goyert S, Ehlers S. Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor (TLR)2- and TLR4-mediated pathogen recognition in resistance to airborne infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY 2002 Oct;169(7):3480-3484.

Book Chapters

Ehlers S, Hölscher C. DTH-associated pathology.  In: Borriello, Peter (ed): Topley & ; Vol. 5: Kaufmann, Stephan H. E. (ed.): Immunology.  London [u.a.]: Hodder Arnold; 2005

Ehlers S, Hölscher C. Immunologie der Infektabwehr.  In: Adam, Dieter: Die Infektiologie.  Berlin: Springer; 2004 p. 25-52.

Hölscher C. Interleukin-13: genes, receptors and signal transduction.  In: Brombacher, Frank (ed.): Interleukin-13.  Austin, Tex.: Landes Bioscience; 2003 p. 1-12.